Wildlife and Conservation : Essay, Article, Speech, Composition, Paragraph
Wildlife refers to the wild animals, birds and plants which thrives in the wild. India is only 2% of world’s total surface area but it is known to have over 7.5% of the species of animals that the world holds and this percentage accounts nearly for 92,037 species of animals known so far, of which insects alone include 61,375 species. It is estimated that about two times that number of species still remains to be discovered in India alone.
Wildlife ecosystem is self sufficient to support each other’s need when uninterrupted. They are linked by a natural food chain and the biodiversity is enough to support whole wildlife. However, since there have been many human interruption in the recent years, there is a threat looming over the wildlife. Destruction of natural habitats, ecosystem degradation due to pollution, over harvesting of biological resource and disturbances in ecosystem dynamics due to climatic changes are few reasons.
More or less, the main reasons are derived from human activities. During colonial rule alone, wild beasts were hunted ruthlessly for mere display of courage. Also prior to that the kings of India used to hunt for leisure. Tiger and Lion population in India went down at that time only.
It was very long after those days that there have been a conscious step taking for conservation of those resources. Three main Acts that were enacted in India are Indian forest act (1927), Wildlife (protection) Act (1972) and Forest (conservation) Act (1980). Wildlife act was for protection of wild animals, birds and plants, and basically aims at protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environs through National Parks, sanctuaries, etc.
A sanctuary is generally species oriented. Its size is around 0.61 to 7818 sq. Km. Boundaries may not be defined or fenced. Limitations are set for any biotic interference permitted subjected to reasons such as investigation or study of wildlife and purposes ancillary, photography, scientific research, tourism, etc. Also, carrying of light fire, fire arms are prohibited.
Salient features of a National Park are that they are hitched to the habitat for particular wild animal species such as tiger, lion, etc. In contrast to a sanctuary, the boundaries are defined clearly. Inside a National Park, no livestock is allowed to enter except the animal used as a vehicle to travel inside the park. Also, except the buffer zone, no biotic interference is allowed.
These steps were taken in order to preserve wildlife from poaching and he extinction that will follow. And to some extent the tiger and lion are a bit safer in the long run. Illegal poaching is a problem that really needs to be checked strictly. The reproduction process of tigers, lions or most species which are endangered, is not as fast as the gunshots, to which the fiercest animals give up in seconds.
Administration of these protected areas must be done involving as many as people who understand the value of biodiversity and how much it is important to the nature. Biodiversity attracts foreign tourists and this in turn benefits the tourism sector greatly.
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